trees will often need some measure of protection from being eaten by animals such as
rabbits and deer during establishment. This may either take the form of fencing, or in the
case of broadleaf trees, individual tree protection via guards of varying kinds. Some tree
species may not do well inside particular types of guards. Financial considerations will
also affect the choice between fencing or individual protection. Larger plantings may be
more economic to fence, whereas small numbers of trees may be better individually
protected. Costs of both can be high and it may be necessary to decide whether losses due
to animal damage warrant the costs of protection.
Whips will usually need to be staked for support until the root
system is sufficiently established to withstand wind. The stakes should be positioned on
the opposite side of the prevailing wind. The stakes may also act as supports for tree
guards. If individual guards are being used for protection, ideally the stakes should not
extend beyond the top of the guard.
Unless they are degradable, protective tubes
will need to be removed once the trees are big enough to be less affected by grazing
animals and before the tubes start to limit the tree growth.